Journal of Dental Implants

ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year
: 2022  |  Volume : 12  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 106--110

Evaluation of awareness, knowledge, and approval of dental implant treatment among dental patients in northwestern Nigeria: A cross-sectional study


Mujtaba Bala1, Amidu Omotayo Sulaiman2, Ramat Oyebunmi Braimah1, Abdurrazaq Olanrewaju Taiwo3, Jaafaru Rufai1, Muhammad Kaura Abubakar4, Mike Eghosa Ogbeide1, Abdulazeez Kehinde1,  
1 Department of Dental and Maxillofacial Surgery, Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital, Sokoto, Nigeria
2 Department of Restorative Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, College of Medicine, University College Hospital, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria
3 Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Dental Sciences, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria
4 Department of Dental and Maxillofacial Surgery, Federal Medical Center, Gusau, Zamfara, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Mujtaba Bala
Department of Dental and Maxillofacial Surgery, Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital, PMB 2370, Sokoto
Nigeria

Abstract

Background: A dental implant is an artificial root inserted surgically in the process of single or multiple teeth replacements. This study aims to evaluate the awareness, knowledge, and approval of dental implant treatments among dental patients in our hospital. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted among 442 adult patients attending the Dental Clinic of Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital Sokoto State, Nigeria, from March 2021 to February 2022. After obtaining ethical approval, participants were recruited using a structured questionnaire. This questionnaire consist of 12 questions, assessing the patient's awareness, knowledge, and willingness to approve a dental implant as an option for teeth replacement. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS (IBM SPSS) software version 20. Results: There were 293 (66.3%) males and 149 (33.7%) females with an mean ± standard deviation of age 37.4 ± 12.4 years and a range of 20–65 years. Two hundred and forty-six (55.7%) were unaware of a dental implant as an option for missing teeth replacement and 196 (44.3%) have heard of a dental implant. The majority of respondents (73%) heard about dental implants from a dentist, followed by social media (19.4%). Responses from questions yielded variable responses about the knowledge of implant. Regarding the patient's approval, 80.1% expressed their willingness to replace missing tooth/teeth with a dental implant. Conclusion: This research revealed a below-average level of awareness of dental patients about a dental implant as an option for teeth replacement. Dental surgeons need to do more on information dissemination about the use of dental implants.



How to cite this article:
Bala M, Sulaiman AO, Braimah RO, Taiwo AO, Rufai J, Abubakar MK, Ogbeide ME, Kehinde A. Evaluation of awareness, knowledge, and approval of dental implant treatment among dental patients in northwestern Nigeria: A cross-sectional study.J Dent Implant 2022;12:106-110


How to cite this URL:
Bala M, Sulaiman AO, Braimah RO, Taiwo AO, Rufai J, Abubakar MK, Ogbeide ME, Kehinde A. Evaluation of awareness, knowledge, and approval of dental implant treatment among dental patients in northwestern Nigeria: A cross-sectional study. J Dent Implant [serial online] 2022 [cited 2023 Jan 29 ];12:106-110
Available from: https://www.jdionline.org/text.asp?2022/12/2/106/367489


Full Text

 Introduction



Common oral conditions have been shown to have a substantial effect on well-being and quality of life.[1] The loss of one or more natural teeth often results in disability, as essential daily living activities, such as speech and mastication are affected.[1],[2] This also affects the psychological well-being of the affected individuals.[1] Removable partial dentures, fixed partial dentures, and dental implants have been widely used to improve the function and psychological well-being of the affected patients. Each of these replacement options comes with its own merits and demerits.[3] A dental implant is an artificial root inserted to support a complete denture, single or multiple tooth replacement, or maxillofacial prosthesis.[2] The emergence of dental implants has led to the realization of an optimal appearance and excellent alternative for teeth replacement.[4] It is an excellent prosthesis in modern dentistry which aims to restore the patient's normal function, esthetics, speech, and mastication.[5] Since the work of Branemark, advancement has been taking place year in and year out intending to make it more acceptable to dental patients across the globe.[2],[5] Dental implantology has developed in recent decades into a prospering component of dentistry in Europe and the USA. Akeredolu et al.[6] also reported wide acceptability of dental implants across major Nigerian cities. It is the best treatment method for replacing single or multiple missing teeth.[7] The success rate of 95% in 5 years was reported in the literature.[1] However, many patients do not opt for it, due to the lack of knowledge and education, as well as its perceived cost, especially in the region of underdeveloped or developing countries.[6],[7] Dental implantology is practiced in only a few centers in Nigeria, due to the high cost of armamentarium, operator skills, patient awareness, and perceived high cost. This current study tends to assess the awareness, knowledge, and willingness of our patients regarding dental implants as an excellent option for teeth replacement. The outcome of this study will assist in knowing how best to intensify efforts into educating dental patients based on their level of knowledge and willingness to accept dental implants as an option for missing tooth/teeth replacement. Popularizing dental implants and getting them accepted by patients will tremendously improve the quality of life of dental patients.

 Materials and Methods



This was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted among adult patients attending the dental clinic of Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital Sokoto State, Nigeria, from March 2021 to February 2022. Ethical approval from the institution's research and ethics committee was obtained. Adult patients who are 18 years and above who presented at the dental clinic to seek dental treatment and consented to per take in the study were recruited for this study using a structured questionnaire. Very old, uncooperative, and mentally challenged patients were excluded from the study. The questionnaire consists of 12 questions assessing the awareness, knowledge, and willingness of the patient to approve a dental implant as an option for teeth replacement. The investigator personally delivered the questionnaires to the respondents which were filled and collected either immediately or collected later on an agreed date. The questionnaire also recorded the demographic details of the respondents. A pilot study was initially done using 20 participants to ascertain the efficiency of the questionnaire. The collected data were analyzed using the Data was analyzed using SPSS for Window version 20.0 (Armonk, NY: IBM Corp).

 Results



A total of 479 participants were recruited for this study and only 442 of them appropriately filled and returned the questionnaires. There were 293 (66.3%) males and 149 (33.7%) females with mean ± standard deviation age of 37.4 ± 12.4 years and a range of 20–65 years. [Table 1] shows the demographic profiles of the study respondents. Among the study respondents, 246 (55.7%) were unaware of a dental implant as an option for missing teeth replacement and 196 (44.3%) have heard of a dental implant from one source or the other [Figure 1]. The majority of respondents (73%) heard about dental implants from a dentist, followed by social media (19.4%) [Figure 2]. Among the respondents who were said to be aware of a dental implant, only 37% claim to have sufficient information about it. While 3.6% of the respondents could not give any description of a dental implant, the majority (86.2%) could describe it as natural tooth shaped. More than half (52.6%) of respondents had no idea of what a dental implant is made from and 57.1% thought that a dental implant is placed in the jaws, 37.2% thought that it is placed in the gum, and 5.7% have no idea. Most of the respondents (79.6%) believed that dental implants last from 5 to 20 years and the remainder (20.4%) believed it last a lifetime. The majority (98%) of the respondent believed that dental implant needs special care and hygiene. When asked about tooth loss, 37.2% of the respondent had missing tooth/teeth and 80.1% expressed their willingness to replace missing tooth/teeth with a dental implant [Table 2]. There was statistically significant difference when the level of education of the respondents was compared to their awareness of a dental implant as an option for missing tooth/teeth replacement [Table 3].{Figure 1}{Figure 2}{Table 1}{Table 2}{Table 3}

 Discussion



Dental implant therapy has currently been regarded as an excellent option for missing tooth/teeth replacement and it is gaining popularity in the developed world as more and more patients seek it more frequently than ever before.[8] However, it is still not widely done in our clime. It may be due to the lack of armamentarium in most of our dental centers, lack of skills among the dental surgeons, cost of the treatment, as well as lack of patients' awareness.

The present study gave some information about awareness, knowledge (what a layman is expected to know), and the readiness of dental patients to approve dental implant therapy. It was the first study of its kind in the zone; hence, it gives clue to the population's requirements regarding the dental implant as an alternative option for missing tooth/teeth replacement.

Regarding the question of awareness in this study, only 44.3% of respondents are aware of the dental implant as an option for missing tooth/teeth replacement. However, Hilal et al.,[9] Kohli et al.,[10] and Al-Johany et al.[11] reported 93.1%, 76.2% and, 66.4%, respectively. Hilal et al.[9] suggested that the higher finding in the level of awareness in their study was due to continuous worldwide incremental growth of dental implant sales and ability of the respondents to obtain information more easily than during the previous decades.[9] The low level of awareness in this current study could be related to several factors. Most dental centers in our environment lack the basic armamentarium for dental implant therapy as well as inadequate training of dental surgeons. As a result, the patients may not know it as an option for missing tooth/teeth replacement. Lack of frequent and proper utilization of the media in health settings could also be the reason for the lack of awareness among the populace. Furthermore, the lack of properly trained dental technologists in the fabrication of prostheses after implant success is another challenge in our environment.

The relationship between the level of education of the respondents and awareness of dental implants was found to be statistically significant in this study. Gaurav et al.[12] attributed the low level of dental implant awareness to the education level of the respondents in a similar study. This finding in our study could be a result of the majority of patients presenting for dental treatment in our environment being educated. The general public must be aware of the options they could have for missing teeth replacement before they present as patients requiring these services. This would prepare their mind for better understanding and acceptance of this treatment option.

The sources of information for dental implants could be dentists, media such as the Internet, TV, and radio stations, previous patients with dental experience, as well as relatives and friends. In this study, dentists (73%) were the main source of information. Several other studies similarly reported dentists as the main source of information.[9],[10],[13],[14] On the contrary, Pommer et al.[15] in the US reported social media as the main source of information in their studies. Frequent utilization of social media in disseminating health information by the health authorities in their climes was some of the reasons why media became the main source of information as raised in their studies.[15] However, it may be practically convincing that dentists could stand as the main source of information regarding dental implants since other sources of information such as media, friends, and relatives could also depend on dentists who give the required information. Dentists need to do more in the dissemination of information by giving information directly to patients as well as through media engagement.

Respondents believed that dental implants are made from various materials such as titanium, platinum, zirconium, and porcelain. However, 52.6% of the respondents have no idea about what dental implant is made from. The response gotten from assessing the knowledge of respondents about the shape of the implant was that majority (86.2%) claimed that it is just like a tooth. Most respondents (57.1%) knew that dental implant is placed in the jaws. Moreover, 43.4% of the respondents had no idea about the life span of a dental implant. Even though the respondent had thought well of where the implant is placed, the overall picture from the summary of responses in this paragraph indicated that the respondents were not keen on knowing the theoretical aspect of the implant but rather the practical aspect of it.

Most of the respondents (98%) believed that dental implant needs special care and hygiene. This signals the possibility of acquiring a high spirit of positive dental health attitude by the population in the area of the study. Maintaining healthy and sound tissue around an implant is one of the most important factors for the success and longevity of a dental implant.[16] The use of soft toothbrushes, interdental cleaning aids, and specifically designed implant cleaning armamentarium and mouth rinses will assist in preventing peri-implantitis.

Most of the respondents (99.5%) revealed their willingness to receive more information about dental implants. Gaurav et al.[12] reported 100% readiness of their study participants to acquire information about dental implants. This indicated the zeal of the people to acquire more knowledge about dental implant therapy.

When asked whether respondents could opt for dental implant therapy if they have missing tooth/teeth, 80.1% of the respondent expressed their interest. Among those who rejected it, 53.8% revealed a lack of sufficient information as the barrier for them to choose it as a tooth replacement alternative. This is contrary to the results of similar studies by Aljohani et al.[17] and Gaurav et al.[12] who reported high cost to be the main reason why patients will reject implant therapy. This may be a pointer that the population in our clime needs more information about a dental implant as an option for missing tooth/teeth replacement. With sufficient information, other factors such as cost and affordability and fear of the surgical procedure may come in as hindering factors.

 Conclusion



This research revealed a below-average level of awareness of dental patients about a dental implant as an option for teeth replacement. Dental surgeons need to do more on information dissemination about the use of dental implants in the replacement of missing teeth in the mouth. This choice of tooth replacement has been found to be the best option presently.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

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